New Mobility Glossary

Active mobility

Active mobility refers to all forms of transport that rely completely or partly on your own muscle power. This includes walking or cycling, but also e-bikes and pedelecs, as they also require active muscle power despite motorised assistance.

Air taxi

Air taxis are smaller aircraft that transport passengers or freight over short distances and are usually booked as charter flights. In technical terms, air taxis are referred to as eVTOLs (electric Vertical Take-off and Landing Aircraft).

Autonomous driving

Autonomous driving means fully automating the driving of a vehicle. A driver no longer needs to be on board. The path to this is described as automated driving, in which various assistance functions gradually control the engine (acceleration), brakes and steering or intervene in these systems. In total, there are five steps to autonomous driving:

  • Level 1: Assisted driving
  • This usually refers to cruise control with distance or lane departure warning. Drivers must always keep an eye on the traffic, but the vehicle maintains the selected speed.
  • Level 2: Partially automated driving
  • The car takes over tasks independently for a short time without human intervention. For example, the vehicle is able to keep in lane, accelerate or brake. However, the human remains responsible.
  • Level 3: Highly automated driving
  • Braking, overtaking or adapting to speed limits happens without human intervention after activating the driving mode. However, activation is currently only possible in suitable conditions and up to 60 km/h. Drivers are allowed to turn away. If Level 3 mode is active, the manufacturer is liable in the event of driving errors.
  • Level 4: Fully automated driving
  • Drivers become passengers. The vehicle performs all driving tasks independently. Passengers can watch a film, sleep or read a book. A steering wheel is still available and manual driving is possible.
  • Level 5: Autonomous driving
  • The vehicle can also be driven on the road without passengers, for example to pick up passengers.

Bicycle subscription

Bike subscriptions are now available in many larger cities. For a monthly fee, you can get a bike without buying it straight away, as you rent it for at least one month. The advantage here is that repairs are included in the hire price.

Bike leasing, or bicycle leasing

In principle, a leased bike works in the same way as a company car: in most cases, the employer is the lessee and provides the employee with a bike. Employees can then use it for both work and private purposes, but they must contribute to the costs. In return, a monthly leasing instalment is deducted from their salary.

Bike sharing

Bike sharing is a collective term for public bike hire systems from different providers. Rentals usually work with an app that users can use to check where the nearest bike is located. Users rent a bike for their journey. They usually use a different bike for their next journey.

Car Policy

The car policy regulates the company’s fleet management and is an internal catalogue of rules for the purchase of company cars in company fleets. Such a company car policy regulates which employees in the company may use a company car and under what conditions, which cars employees may drive and how the cars are to be treated.


Carpooling describes the creation and use of private carpools and also refers to what we know in German as "Mitfahrgelegenheit". These arrangements can be organised privately or via carpooling agencies or commuter agencies. In contrast to car sharing, several people use the car at the same time and there is a driver who makes it available privately.

Car sharing

Car sharing refers to private and public providers of cars that can be used for short-term rentals. The vehicle owner is usually the car sharing provider. Customers register via the provider app or a super app and conclude a framework agreement with the provider. They can rent a vehicle by the minute, hour or day, with petrol or electricity costs included in the car sharing provider's tariff. 

A distinction is made between station-based car sharing, in which the vehicles are collected from dedicated parking spaces for the duration of the rental period and returned at the end of the rental period, and station-independent car sharing, so-called "free-floating car sharing", in which the vehicles are picked up and returned to all authorised parking spaces on public roads as well as explicitly defined additional parking spaces within the business area.

Car sharing is seen as a promising means of reducing the number of vehicles in cities or at least making it attractive to do without a second car.

Car subscription

With a car subscription, a vehicle is rented or subscribed to for a fixed monthly instalment for a certain period of time without purchasing it. The minimum term is one to three months, the maximum term is 12 to 24 months. The monthly instalment usually includes all costs such as insurance, maintenance and repairs.

Charging infrastructure

All facilities required for charging vehicles are grouped under this term: Charging parks with charging points, the transformer station or cable systems.

Charging point and charging station

A charging station can offer several connections, so-called charging points, for charging an electric car. Typical charging stations, also known as charging columns, have two and some have three charging points.

Company mobility

Company mobility distinguishes between four types of transport:

  • Employee mobility, also known as commuter traffic, includes all journeys made by employees to their place of work.
  • Business mobility includes the distances travelled by employees on behalf of their employer during their working hours, e.g. journeys to customers or business trips.
  • Visitor traffic refers to the mobility of visitors travelling to the company site.
  • Private haulage, or transport on own account, describes the distances travelled either on the premises of the company site or between different sites of the same company.

Corporate mobility management

Corporate mobility management refers to all organisational and control measures of an organisation that are aimed at aligning the mobility behaviour of employees with the achievement of corporate goals - e.g. in terms of sustainability and costs - in the area of mobility and transport (e.g. subsidies for public transport, the expansion of bicycle infrastructure and mobility budgets). Corporate mobility management covers various aspects such as vehicle fleet management, business trips, external delivery traffic and employees' journeys to work.

CSRD, or Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive

The Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive, or CSRD for short, regulates the disclosure obligations of companies with regard to sustainability in the EU. Relevant instruments under the CSRD are the EU taxonomy, which sets out measures to achieve environmental targets, and the ESG criteria (Environment, Social, Governance), which use quantifiable indicators to show how a company is positioned in terms of environmental, social and corporate governance. These criteria must be disclosed.

Delivery bots

Delivery bots are autonomous delivery robots that deliver parcels, groceries, medicines and ordered food to the front door. They are often used on the last mile and can be seen in large cities in particular. At the moment, they are still often accompanied by people. In future, they will be able to transport parcels quickly, cheaply, hygienically and safely on their own.

Deutschlandticket, or 49 euro ticket

The Deutschlandticket is a monthly ticket that includes unlimited access to regional and local public transport throughout Germany. As a "flat rate for local public transport", the ticket is valid throughout Germany on all buses, trams, underground trains, suburban trains and local and regional trains. The 49-euro ticket is a digital ticket and will therefore only be offered as a mobile phone ticket via an app or on a chip card. Companies can offer their employees the Deutschlandticket as a job ticket.

Drop-off area

A drop-off area is a reserved area that is comparable to a loading zone. Instead of unloading goods, drivers are allowed to stop briefly to let passengers get off. In North America and Europe, these areas are also known as kiss-and-ride zones. In the future, drop-off areas are expected to play a particularly important role in the transition from semi-automated to fully automated vehicle systems.

E-bike, or electric bikes

E-bikes are bicycles with an electric motor where the cyclist controls the built-in motor by pedalling. What is generally understood colloquially as an e-bike is differentiated into three different types of bicycles with an electric drive: Pedelec 25, S-Pedelec or Pedelec 45 and electric bicycles (i.e. "real" e-bikes). These three types of bike differ not only in terms of equipment and use, but especially in terms of how they are treated from a traffic law perspective.

  • In order to be treated in the same way as a bicycle according to the German Road Traffic Regulations (StVO), the motor must have a rated continuous power of less than 250 watts and be regulated from 25 km/h upwards.
  • E-bikes that provide assistance up to 45 km/h (S-pedelecs), on the other hand, are classified as mopeds in vehicle category L1e-B, which means that they are subject to insurance, helmet and driving licence requirements. E-bikes in turn belong to the group of light mopeds and mopeds depending on their maximum power.
  • Real e-bikes, i.e. bicycles that can be ridden without pedal power, belong to the group of mopeds with a maximum speed of 25 km/h. They therefore only require a moped licence. They therefore only require a moped driving licence and the minimum age is 15 years. E-bikes with a maximum speed of 45 km/h fall under the category of mopeds and may only be ridden from the age of 16. An AM driving licence is required for them. An operating licence and registration number are also required here.

Electric car

An electric car is a fully electric vehicle that is powered exclusively by electricity from a traction battery and one or more electric motors. Pure electric cars are to be distinguished from (plug-in) hybrid cars and hydrogen cars. A hybrid electric car combines a combustion engine and an electric drive in the same vehicle with the aim of being able to travel long distances without having to stop to recharge. With plug-in hybrids, the vehicle battery can be charged at a charging station or wall charging station, as with an electric car. In contrast to a fully electric vehicle, the traction current in a hydrogen car is not fed into the battery from the power grid, but is generated on board the car using hydrogen and a fuel cell. The hydrogen must be refuelled at a filling station.

E-mobility, or electric mobility

E-mobility stands for electric mobility. Electromobility encompasses various forms of electrically powered means of transport such as cars, lorries, pedelecs and e-scooters. But it also includes public transport vehicles, i.e. buses and trains. Depending on the drive system, the required energy can be generated, for example, by battery electric, hybrid drive or in the form of hydrogen in combination with a fuel cell.

Employee mobility

Employee mobility covers employees' journeys to work. Companies can support their employees with mobility offers such as company bike leasing, a job ticket or a mobility budget.


An e-scooter is a vehicle with two wheels and a footboard. In contrast to a kick scooter, the e-scooter is electrically powered. They are a regular cause of discussion about new mobility options in cities and are increasingly subject to regulation, particularly due to the irresponsible behaviour of many users and wild parking.


An eVTOL is a vertical take-off and landing aircraft with electric propulsion (electric Vertical Take-Off and Landing Aircraft). It is basically comparable to a helicopter, but is intended to be used in congested metropolises in particular. They are often also referred to as air taxis and are expected to be able to travel autonomously in the future, i.e. without human assistance.

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The fleet or vehicle pool refers to all the vehicles that a company owns and uses.

Fleet management

Fleet management refers to the administration, scheduling, control and monitoring of a company's vehicle fleet. Fleet managers are responsible for managing the fleet efficiently, cost-consciously and now also sustainably. They are responsible for procuring vehicles, optimising their use, coordinating maintenance and repair work, managing insurance matters and ensuring compliance with legal regulations. With the increasing integration of company bicycles, car sharing, car subscriptions and mobility budgets into company mobility management, fleet management goes beyond the traditional management of company cars and is becoming more versatile and flexible.

Flex Commuting

Flex commuting is a new mobility trend and describes the fact that more and more employees are looking for alternatives to commuting by car. One promising approach to rethinking mobility on the way to work is the mobility budget.

Green Fleet

A green fleet primarily describes a sustainable, environmentally friendly organisation of the vehicle fleet with the aim of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, criteria emissions, waste to landfill and the consumption of conventional fuels. Aspects and instruments that make the fleet greener and more sustainable: Electrifying the fleet, keeping an electronic logbook, driving in a fuel-efficient manner, offering car sharing, avoiding journeys, using public transport.

Health Mobility

Health Mobility describes the health dimension in mobility. It is a collective term for all topics and innovations in mobility that include health aspects. For example, air quality, traffic noise levels or safety in traffic. Sustainability and inclusion also play an important role in health mobility.

Inclusive mobility

Inclusive mobility refers to the equal and barrier-free right to mobility for all people regardless of disability, ethnicity, gender, age, income and other aspects.

Intermodal, or intermodality

Intermodality means combining several modes of transport to cover a certain distance. For example, a person who lives on the outskirts of a city is intermodal if they cycle to the station and then take the train to the city centre, where they reach their destination on foot.


A jobticket is a monthly or annual public transport pass that the employer pays for or subsidises for its employees. The company buys the ticket directly from the transport company and makes it available to employees. It is a special ticket for commuters who travel to work by bus and train and was developed to make it easier to switch from company cars to public transport in order to relieve commuter traffic. A particularly attractive feature of the Job Ticket is that it can be used by employees not only for travelling to and from work, but also for private journeys.

Light Electric Vehicle

The term light electric vehicle (LEV) covers a wide range of vehicles - from e-scooters, electric bicycles and cargo bikes, electric mopeds and motorbikes to three- and four-wheeled light electric vehicles, also known as microcars or moped cars. Depending on the category, LEVs are limited to low speeds (20 km/h, 25 km/h or 45 km/h) or authorised for higher speeds up to over 100 km/h. Light electric vehicles are more sustainable than electric cars as they are lighter and smaller and therefore require less energy to use and manufacture. The batteries are usually quite small, which reduces the consumption of critical materials and production-related greenhouse gas emissions. Light electric vehicles have a key role to play in the transport transition, particularly in densely populated cities.


Micromobility refers to electrically powered micro-vehicles weighing less than 500 kilograms, such as e-bikes or e-scooters. They are limited to a speed of 25 km/h and do not require a driving licence. As these micro-vehicles are powered by electricity or a battery instead of fossil fuels, micromobility is considered resource-saving and sustainable.

Mobile ticket, or e-ticket

Due to the widespread use of smartphones, electronic tickets are replacing traditional paper tickets. Electronic tickets can be accessed digitally and are regularly used for flight and train tickets or even customer cards. The Deutschlandticket, for example, is an mobile ticket that is available digitally via an app.

Mobility-as-a-Service (MaaS)

MaaS stands for Mobility as a Service. This means that it is no longer a product (car) that is sold, but a service (mobility). The service can be either a bicycle, scooter, e-scooter or a car, but also a public transport ticket or an on-demand journey. With Mobility as a Service, providers want to cover all of their customers' mobility needs. The user specifies the desired destination, the desired arrival time and any other preferences. The provider suggests the optimum route from door to door, taking into account the specific wishes, the current traffic situation and the means of transport available. A wide variety of public and private modes of transport can be used.

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Mobility budget

Mobility budgets are an instrument of company mobility. Employees receive a monthly allowance to cover their commute to work as well as business and private journeys using any means of transport of their choice. The budget can be used, for example, for local public transport, such as the Deutschlandticket, for leasing a bicycle or for bike and car sharing services. The amount of the budget is usually tailored to the individual employee. The mobility budget is intended to promote employees' mobility at work and at home and, ideally, to make it more sustainable.

Mobility hubs

Mobility hubs bundle public and private sharing services, such as bicycles, e-scooters, mopeds or car sharing, in one place, often in the immediate vicinity of a public transport station. By integrating additional services such as charging points for electric vehicles, intelligent post boxes or e-cargo bikes, mobility hubs support the electrification of urban mobility and, by promoting intermodality and multimodality, simultaneously reduce traffic volumes and congestion over the last mile.

Modal split

The modal split describes the distribution of the transport volume between the various modes of transport, i.e. non-motorised and motorised private transport as well as public transport.

Motorised private transport

Motorised private transport refers to passenger transport using non-public motorised means of transport or private vehicles.

New Mobility

New Mobility is a collective term that summarises many innovations and concepts relating to urban mobility and describes new and emerging mobility options and their combination in an integrated transport system, including smart parking, micromobility, bike sharing, car sharing and e-scooters. The objectives of New Mobility include the establishment of smart solutions that reduce the acute lack of space in cities while conserving resources and increasing efficiency. Many New Mobility concepts are already in use today, particularly in large cities and metropolitan regions - and the trend is rising.

New Work

The term New Work summarises all changes, trends and innovations in the world of work and refers to technologies as well as work culture and mentality and working models. Current New Work topics include the four-day week, working from home, remote working and hybrid working. Changes taking place in the world of work also have an impact on people's mobility behaviour, i.e. on employee mobility and operational mobility.

Passive mobility

Passive mobility refers to forms of mobility that are made possible exclusively by external energy. As passive mobility options are only possible through the use of external energy, they necessarily require a motor. Passive mobility includes cars and motorbikes as well as buses and trains.

Road Diet

The Road Diet trend describes the change that is currently taking place in many cities around the world: Road and parking space for cars is being reduced and allocated to other modes of transport with the expansion of cycle paths and pavements and the prioritisation of public transport. The aim of a road diet is to redistribute the scarce space in the city in a new and, above all, fairer way in order to provide more opportunities for a large number of road users who do not use the car.

Sustainable mobility

Sustainable mobility refers to all means of transport that get people to their destination in an environmentally and climate-friendly and resource-saving way. This includes cycling, walking, scootering or public transport, such as buses and trains, because public transport is efficient in its use of resources due to the shared use and thus high utilisation of the mode of transport.

Urban Air Mobility

Urban Air Mobility is a new form of mobility and means the expansion of urban transport into the airspace. Urban Air Mobility concepts mostly involve eVTOL and air taxis.

Vision Zero

The term Vision Zero has its origins in occupational safety and describes various approaches aimed at preventing injuries and accidents on the road and ultimately reducing them to zero.


While charging stations are used to charge electric cars in public spaces, a wall charging box or wallbox is generally used in private households, in private garages or on private car parks. This is because a normal household socket is not suitable as a charging station for an electric car in the long term, as conventional power cables, plugs and sockets can quickly overheat and, in the worst case, burn out or cause a cable fire. Compared to charging stations, electric vehicles are charged much more slowly via a wallbox.

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Stefan Wendering
Stefan is a freelance author and editor at NAVIT. Previously, he worked for startups and in the mobility sphere. He is an expert in urban and sustainable mobility, employee benefits, and New Work. In addition to creating blog content, he also produces marketing materials, taglines, and website content, as well as case studies.
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